Physics High School

## Answers

**Answer 1**

The resilient modulus of the **subgrade soil **material is approximately **25,175 psi**.

The **resilient modulus **of a soil material represents its ability to recover its original shape and modulus after being subjected to **deformation**. It is an important parameter used in pavement design and analysis. To calculate the resilient modulus, we need the values of confining **pressure**, **axial stress**, and resilient strain.

Given:

Confining pressure (σ_c) = 12 psi

Axial stress (σ_a) = 30 psi

**Resilient strain **(ε) = 715 micro strains

The resilient modulus ([tex]M_{r}[/tex]) can be determined using the formula:

[tex]M_{r}[/tex]= (σ_a - σ_c) / ε

Substituting the given values:

[tex]M_{r}[/tex] = (30 psi - 12 psi) / (715 micro strains)

Converting micro strains to the equivalent unit of strain (1 micro strain = 1x10⁻⁶):

[tex]M_{r}[/tex] = 18 psi / (715 x 10⁻⁶)

[tex]M_{r}[/tex] = 18 psi / 0.000715

[tex]M_{r}[/tex] ≈ 25,175 psi

Therefore, the resilient modulus of the subgrade soil material is approximately 25,175 psi.

Learn more about **Pressure:**

https://brainly.com/question/28012687

#SPJ4

## Related Questions

1) a. What are the hazards of visiting Jupiter.

b. What do we expect to learn from the Juno Mission

### Answers

a. Extreme Radiation, Harsh Environment, High Gravity, Limited Resources.

b. The **Juno Mission** is expected to enhance our understanding of Jupiter's formation, its role in the solar system, and planetary processes in general.

Understanding Jupiter's Origins, **Mapping the Magnetic Field, **Investigating the Atmosphere, Probing the Core,

a. There are several hazards associated with visiting Jupiter:

Extreme Radiation: Jupiter's powerful magnetic field generates intense radiation belts, posing a significant threat to spacecraft and human exploration.

Harsh Environment: Jupiter's atmosphere is composed mostly of hydrogen and helium, with strong winds and extreme weather phenomena, including powerful storms like the Great Red Spot.

**High Gravity**: Jupiter's immense gravity field makes landing and takeoff extremely challenging. It requires advanced propulsion systems to overcome the gravitational pull.

Limited Resources: Jupiter's remote location and harsh conditions make it difficult to sustain long-duration missions. Limited resources and energy availability can pose challenges for exploration.

b. The Juno Mission aims to study Jupiter in-depth and provide insights into its formation, evolution, and composition. Key scientific goals include:

Understanding Jupiter's Origins: Juno will help determine whether Jupiter formed from the same materials as the Sun and provide clues about the early solar system.

**Mapping the Magnetic Field**: Juno will measure Jupiter's magnetic field to understand its origin and structure, shedding light on the planet's deep interior and the processes driving its magnetic field.

Investigating the Atmosphere: Juno's instruments will analyze Jupiter's atmospheric composition, temperature, and cloud patterns to improve our understanding of its dynamics and **atmospheric processes**.

Probing the **Core**: By studying the planet's gravitational field, Juno will help scientists uncover Jupiter's core and gain insights into its structure and composition.

To know more about **Juno Mission, **here

brainly.com/question/13610483

#SPJ4

A dry sand has an angle of internal friction of 44°. If it is tested in a triaxial test under a cell pressure of 400 kPa, what would be the anticipated deviator stress? (Ao = 1820 kPa

### Answers

The** anticipated deviator stress** in the triaxial test for the dry sand would be approximately 1373.81 kPa.

To determine the anticipated deviator stress in a **triaxial test** for dry sand with an angle of internal friction of 44° and a cell pressure of 400 kPa, we can use the formula:

σd = (Ao - σc) × tan(φ)

Where:

σd = Deviator stress

Ao = Applied stress (cell pressure)

σc = Confining stress (cell pressure)

φ = Angle of **internal friction**

Substituting the given values:

σd = (1820 kPa - 400 kPa) × tan(44°)

σd = (1420 kPa) × tan(44°)

σd ≈ 1420 kPa × 0.9659

σd ≈ 1373.81 kPa

Learn more about **deviator stress** at

https://brainly.com/question/16641305

#SPJ4

How was it determined that the cratering rate on the Moon was

much higher during the first 0.5 Gyrs after Moon formation than

after 0.5 Gyrs?

### Answers

The determination that the cratering rate on the **Moon** was higher during the first 0.5 billion years (Gyrs) after its formation compared to the period after 0.5 Gyrs is based on several lines of evidence and analysis. These are Lunar Samples, Crater Counting, Impact Models and Simulation.

Here are a few key points:

**Lunar Samples:** The study of lunar samples returned by the Apollo missions provided valuable information about the Moon's geological history. By analyzing the ages of the samples using radiometric dating techniques, scientists found that the majority of the Moon's basaltic lava flows, known as maria, were formed within the first 0.5 Gyrs of its existence. These basalts are relatively devoid of craters compared to older terrains on the Moon's highlands.

**Crater Counting:** Crater counting is a widely used method to estimate the relative ages of planetary surfaces. By examining the density of impact craters on different lunar terrains, scientists can infer the approximate age of those regions. By comparing the crater density on different areas of the Moon's surface, researchers determined that the number of **craters** was higher on older terrains and lower on younger terrains. This observation suggests that the cratering rate decreased over time.

**Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Data**: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched in 2009, has provided high-resolution images and data of the Moon's surface. These images have allowed scientists to perform more accurate and detailed crater counts, confirming the higher crater density on older lunar terrains. The LRO data also revealed that younger regions, such as the maria, have fewer craters, supporting the notion of a decrease in the cratering rate over time.

**Impact Models and Simulations: **Scientists have developed models and computer simulations to understand the evolution of the lunar surface and its cratering history. These models take into account factors such as the early intense bombardment phase in the solar system's history, the decreasing population of impactors over time, and the Moon's changing environment. Through simulations, researchers have been able to reproduce the observed pattern of higher cratering rates early in the Moon's history followed by a decrease in the cratering rate.

By combining these lines of evidence and analysis, scientists have determined that the **cratering rate **on the Moon was higher during the first 0.5 Gyrs after its formation than in the subsequent period. This understanding contributes to our knowledge of the Moon's early history and the dynamics of the solar system during its early stages.

To know more about **craters:**

https://brainly.com/question/32836634

#SPJ4

Problem 3: Magnitude calculations a) Use the following information to calculate the surface (Ms) and body (mb) earthquake magnitudes using the following parameters: P-wave: A=1.8×10−6mT=15secΔ=29 ∘ Rayleigh wave: A=3.4×10 −6mΔ=29 ∘

b) A fault plane of length 6 km and width 7 km slipped 5 m. If the rock rigidity is 3.2x 10 10N/m 2. Calculate the moment magnitude Mw for the earthquake produced when the fault slipped. Calculate everything in SI units; use Nm for the seismic moment.

### Answers

a) To calculate the **surface magnitude **([tex]M_s[/tex]) and **body magnitude **([tex]m_b[/tex]) for the earthquake, we have the following parameters:

P-wave:

**Amplitude** (A) = 1.8 × [tex]10^(-6)[/tex] m

**Period** (T) = 15 sec

**Distance** (Δ) = 29°

Rayleigh wave:

Amplitude (A) = 3.4 ×[tex]10^(-6)[/tex]m

Distance (Δ) = 29°

For the surface magnitude ([tex]M_s[/tex]), we use the formula:

[tex]M_s[/tex] = log10(A) + 3.3 * log10(T) + 0.003 * Δ + 4.0

Substituting the values for the P-wave:

[tex]M_s[/tex] = log10(1.8 × 10^(-6)) + 3.3 * log10(15) + 0.003 * 29 + 4.0

For the body magnitude ([tex]m_b[/tex]), we use the formula:

[tex]m_b[/tex] = log10(A) + 1.66 * log10(Δ) + 3.3

Substituting the values for the Rayleigh wave:

[tex]m_b[/tex] = log10(3.4 × 10^(-6)) + 1.66 * log10(29) + 3.3

b) To calculate the moment magnitude (Mw) for the earthquake, we have the following information:

Fault plane length (L) = 6 km = 6000 m

Fault plane width (W) = 7 km = 7000 m

Slip (D) = 5 m

Rock rigidity (μ) = 3.2 × 10^10 N/m^2

The **seismic moment** ([tex]M_o[/tex]) is given by:

[tex]M_o[/tex] = μ * D * A

Substituting the values:

[tex]M_o[/tex] = (3.2 ×[tex]10^10 N/m^2[/tex]) * (5 m) * (6000 m * 7000 m)

To calculate [tex]Mw[/tex], we use the formula:

[tex]Mw[/tex] = (2/3) * log10([tex]M_o[/tex]) - 10.7

Substituting the value of [tex]M_o[/tex] into the formula, we can calculate [tex]M_w[/tex].

The seismic moment is given in Nm, and the magnitudes are dimensionless values representing the energy released during an earthquake.

Learn more about **waves** here:

https://brainly.com/question/25954805

#SPJ11

What deflects the wind to the right direction in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere?

### Answers

The **Coriolis effect **causes the wind to blow to the right in the Northern Hemisphere. The Coriolis effect is a force that appears to exist because of how the Earth rotates.

Any object, including **air masses**, traveling freely above the Earth's surface appears to be thrown to the right in the Northern Hemisphere as it rotates.

The same Coriolis effect causes the wind to be redirected to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. In the **Southern Hemisphere**, the apparent force acts in the opposite direction, deflecting moving objects, especially air masses, to the left.

Large-scale weather systems like cyclones and anticyclones rotate due to the Coriolis effect, as do the **predominant wind patterns **in each hemisphere.

To know more about **Coriolis effect, **here

brainly.com/question/31284831

#SPJ4

someone help

If the debt to equity ratio is \( 0.31 \) calculate the equity to asset ratio. Please round your answer to two decimal places. Example: \( 1.28 \) QUESTION 11 If the debt to equity ratio is \( 0.31 \)

### Answers

The **equity **to asset ratio can be calculated based on the given debt-to-equity **ratio **of 0.31.

The equity-to-asset **ratio **is a financial metric that indicates the **proportion **of a company's assets that are financed by shareholders' equity. To calculate the equity-to-asset ratio, we need to subtract the debt from the total assets and then divide the result by the total assets.

Let's assume that the debt-to-equity ratio is 0.31. This means that for every **dollar **of equity, there is $0.31 of **debt**. To find the equity-to-asset ratio, we first need to determine the proportion of equity and debt in the company's financing.

Since the debt-to-equity ratio is 0.31, we can deduce that the proportion of equity is 1 and the proportion of debt is 0.31. The sum of the equity and debt proportions is 1 + 0.31 = 1.31. This means that equity represents 1/1.31 or approximately 0.76 of the total financing, while debt represents 0.31/1.31 or approximately 0.24 of the total financing.

Now, to calculate the equity-to-asset ratio, we divide the equity by the total assets. Since equity represents 0.76 of the total financing, the equity-to-asset ratio is 0.76. Therefore, the equity-to-asset ratio, rounded to two decimal places, is 0.76.

Learn more about **ratio **here:

https://brainly.com/question/30292805

#SPJ11

Failure mechanisms

Which of these statement(s) is/are correct?

1. A slope instability mechanism is usually triggered by a decrease in the applied load on the crest of the embankment.

2. The pore water pressure does not influence the initiation of a slope instability mechanism.

3. The factor of safety does not depend to a large extent on the inclination of the slope.

a) 1 and 2 are correct, 3 is wrong

b) 1 is correct, 2 and 3 are wrong

c) 2 is correct, 1 and 3 are wrong

d) all 3 are wrong

### Answers

The **correct** statement is: b) 1 is correct, 2 and 3 are wrong.

1. A slope instability **mechanism** is typically triggered by a decrease in the applied load on the crest of the embankment. This decrease in load can result from factors such as erosion, removal of **material** at the toe of the slope, or changes in groundwater conditions.

2. The pore water pressure does indeed influence the initiation of a slope **instability** mechanism. Elevated pore water pressure can reduce the effective stress within the soil and weaken its shear strength, making it more susceptible to failure.

3. The factor of safety, which is a measure of the **stability** of a slope, is influenced by various factors, including the inclination of the slope. The steeper the slope, the lower the factor of safety, as the shear forces acting on the **slope** increase with the inclination.

To know more about **failure mechanisms:**

https://brainly.com/question/31665056

**#SPJ4**

1)After 100 years of plankton studies which used small

nets to capture the tiny floating creatures, what major plankton

discovery was made in the 1990's of a type more numerous than any

other?

diffuse

### Answers

A major plankton **discovery **was made that was found to be more numerous than any other which revolutionized the understanding of plankton **dynamics **and their ecological importance.

During the 1990s, a groundbreaking discovery was made in the field of plankton studies. Scientists using advanced technology, such as underwater imaging systems and DNA analysis, revealed the existence of a previously unknown type of plankton called picoplankton. Picoplankton are extremely small organisms, ranging in size from 0.2 to 2 **micrometers**, and they consist of diverse groups of bacteria and photosynthetic microbes known as cyanobacteria.

What made the **discovery **of picoplankton so significant was the realization that they were incredibly abundant in the world's oceans. In fact, they were found to be more numerous than any other type of plankton, including the previously dominant group known as nanoplankton.

Prior to this discovery, nanoplankton were considered to be the primary drivers of oceanic food webs and carbon cycling. However, the identification and quantification of picoplankton challenged this long-held belief.

The abundance of picoplankton had profound implications for understanding marine ecosystems and global biogeochemical processes. Despite their small size, picoplankton plays a crucial role in the marine food web by serving as the base of the trophic pyramid.

They are a vital food source for higher trophic levels, including larger zooplankton, fish, and other marine organisms. Additionally, picoplankton contributes significantly to the global **carbon **cycle through their photosynthetic activity, as they are responsible for a substantial portion of primary production in the oceans.

In conclusion, the discovery of picoplankton in the 1990s, as a type of plankton more numerous than any other, had a transformative impact on our understanding of marine ecosystems.

It highlighted the ecological importance of these tiny organisms in sustaining oceanic food webs and their significant role in global biogeochemical processes, particularly carbon cycling. The study of picoplankton continues to be an active area of **research**, as scientists strive to unravel their intricate interactions and better comprehend their implications for the health and functioning of our oceans.

Learn more about **carbon **here:

https://brainly.com/question/2566362

#SPJ11

The position of a particle is given by the function s(t) = 2t3 - 9t2 + 12t, where t is measured in seconds and s in meters. When is the particle at rest? Select the correct response: 2 sec only 2 and 3 sec 1 sec only 1 and 3 sec 1 and 2 sec Edit

### Answers

The particle is at **rest** at t = 1 second and t = 2 seconds. The correct answer is option 5.

To determine when the particle is at rest, we need to find the values of t where the **velocity** of the particle is zero. Velocity is the derivative of position with respect to time.

Taking the **derivative** of the given position function s(t), we get

[tex]v(t) = 6t^2 - 18t + 12[/tex].

To find when the velocity is zero, we set v(t) = 0 and solve for t.

[tex]6t^2 - 18t + 12 = 0[/tex]

**Dividing** through by 6, we have:

[tex]t^2 - 3t + 2 = 0[/tex]

Factoring the** quadratic equation**, we get:

(t - 1)(t - 2) = 0

Therefore, the particle is at rest at t = 1 second and t = 2 seconds. The correct answer is option 5: 1 and 2 seconds.

To know more about ** quadratic equation, **here

brainly.com/question/17177510

#SPJ4

--The complete Question is, The position of a particle is given by the function s(t) = 2t3 - 9t2 + 12t, where t is measured in seconds and s in meters. When is the particle at rest?

Select the correct response:

1. 2 sec only

2. 2 and 3 sec

3. 1 sec only

4. 1 and 3 sec

5. 1 and 2 sec--

The last thing I mention in the notes is that the Moon is slowing down the rotation of the earth hence after a few billion years the Moon and Earth will be tidal locked together in a synchronous orbit. When that happens what do you thing will happen to the visibility of the Moon in Earth's sky?

### Answers

The same side of the Moon will always be facing the Earth when the Earth and Moon are tidally locked in a **synchronous orbit**, which implies that the Moon's rotation will be synchronized with its **orbit** around the Earth.

The **Moon's appearance** in the Earth's sky would change as a result. There wouldn't be any moon phases like there are now. Instead, only one side of the Moon would be permanently facing us and visible from Earth, with the other half remaining hidden. The viewable side would stay unchanged over time, giving Earth a static and unchanging picture of the **Moon**.

To know more about **Moon's appearance, **here

brainly.com/question/14683225

#SPJ4

According to the theory of plate tectonics... All of these. Pieces of the Earth's crust are in constant motion. There are several types of plate boundaries. Energy released from inside the earth drives plate movement

### Answers

It is important to note that while tectonics plate is widely accepted by the **scientific community,** our understanding of the Earth's dynamics is continually evolving as new research and observations are made.

According to the theory of plate tectonics, all of the statements you mentioned are correct.

Pieces of the **Earth's crust** are in constant motion: The Earth's lithosphere, which includes the crust and a portion of the upper mantle, is divided into several large and small pieces called tectonic plates. These plates are not fixed but rather move and interact with each other over time. The motion of these plates is responsible for various geological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountain ranges.

There are several types of plate boundaries: **Plate boundaries** are the areas where two plates meet. There are three main types of plate boundaries:

a)** Divergent boundaries**: These occur where plates move away from each other. As the plates separate, molten material rises from the mantle, creating new crust and pushing the plates apart. Divergent boundaries often form mid-ocean ridges and can also be found on land, creating rift zones.

b) **Convergent boundaries**: These occur where plates collide. There are three subtypes of convergent boundaries: oceanic-continental convergence, oceanic-oceanic convergence, and continental-continental convergence. When plates converge, various processes such as subduction (one plate sinking beneath another), mountain building, and volcanic activity can occur.

c) **Transform boundaries**: These occur where plates slide past each other horizontally. Transform boundaries are characterized by faults, such as the famous San Andreas Fault in California. Earthquakes are common along transform boundaries.

Energy released from inside the Earth drives plate movement: The driving force behind plate tectonics is the convective motion of material in the Earth's mantle. Heat from the Earth's core causes the mantle material to flow in a circular pattern, known as **convection currents. **These convection currents transfer heat from the core to the surface, driving the movement of tectonic plates. The release of energy through **volcanic eruptions** and earthquakes is a consequence of the plate movement driven by these convective currents.

It is important to note that while **tectonics plate** is widely accepted by the scientific community, our understanding of the Earth's dynamics is continually evolving as new research and observations are made.

To know more about **tectonics plates:**

https://brainly.com/question/30805154

#SPJ4

Given the information in Problem 2, determine to what strength the tension member would have to be designed to if the designer wanted a probability of failure of only 0.0001. Assume a lognormal distribution for this scenario. Determine the probability of failure of a steel tension member in a truss that supports widely varying snow loads given the following data on the loading placed on the member (Q) and the member strength (R); Q = 8,000 lbs and COV = 0.27 and R = 15,000 lbs and COV = 0.08. First solve assuming that each variable, Q and R were represented by a normal distribution and then resolve assuming that each was best represented by a log-normal distribution.

### Answers

If Q and R are represented by** **log-normal** **distributions, the **probability **of failure of the steel tension member in this scenario would be approximately **0.1806.**

To determine the required strength of the **tension **member to achieve a probability of failure of only 0.0001, we need to consider the reliability analysis using the lognormal distribution.

First, let's solve the problem assuming that the **variables **Q (loading) and R (member strength) are represented by normal distributions:

**Normal Distribution:**

For the normal distribution, we'll calculate the reliability index** (beta) **using the formula:

β = [tex](ln(Q) - ln(R)) / √(COV_Q^2 + COV_R^2)[/tex]

where ln is the natural **logarithm **and COV represents the coefficient of variation.

Given:

Q = 8,000 lbs,[tex]COV_Q[/tex] = 0.27

R = 15,000 lbs, [tex]COV_R[/tex]= 0.08

**Calculating β:**

β = [tex](ln(8,000) - ln(15,000)) / √(0.27^2 + 0.08^2)[/tex]

β =[tex](-0.9163) / √(0.0729 + 0.0064)[/tex]

β = [tex]-0.9163 / √0.0793[/tex]

β ≈ -0.9163 ÷ 0.2816

β ≈ -3.254

Now, using a **standard **normal distribution table, we can find the probability of failure corresponding to β = -3.254, which is P(failure) = 0.00062 (approximately).

Therefore, if Q and R are represented by normal distributions, the probability of failure of the steel tension member in this scenario would be approximately **0.00062.**

Next, let's solve the problem assuming that each variable, Q and R, is best represented by a log-normal distribution:

**Log**-Normal Distribution:

For the log-normal distribution, we'll calculate the reliability index (beta) using a similar formula as in the normal distribution case:

β = [tex](ln(Q) - ln(R)) / √(ln(1 + COV_Q^2) + ln(1 + COV_R^2))[/tex]

Given:

Q = 8,000 lbs,[tex]COV_Q[/tex] = 0.27

R = 15,000 lbs,[tex]COV_R[/tex] = 0.08

Calculating β:

β = [tex](ln(8,000) - ln(15,000)) / √(ln(1 + 0.27^2) + ln(1 + 0.08^2))[/tex]

β = [tex](-0.9163) / √(ln(1 + 0.0729) + ln(1 + 0.0064))[/tex]

β =[tex]-0.9163 / √(ln(1.0729) + ln(1.0064))[/tex]

β ≈[tex]-0.9163 / √(0.0696 + 0.0064)[/tex]

β ≈ [tex]-0.9163 / √0.076[/tex]

Now, using a standard normal distribution table, we can find the probability of failure corresponding to β ≈[tex]-0.9163 / √0.076[/tex], which is **P(failure) **=** **0.1806 (approximately).

Therefore, if Q and R are represented by log-normal distributions, the probability of failure of the steel tension member in this scenario would be **approximately 0.1806.**

To learn more about **probability**, refer to the link:

https://brainly.com/question/25839839

**#SPJ4**

How do the positions of the planets change from day to day or

week to week?

### Answers

Overall, the positions of the planets change gradually from day to day and week to week due to their** orbital motion** around the Sun, resulting in the familiar dance of the planets in our night sky.

The positions of planets in our solar system change from day to day and week to week due to their orbital motion around the** Sun**. Each planet follows its own unique orbit, and these orbits are not perfect circles but rather elliptical in shape. As the planets orbit the Sun, their positions relative to the Earth and other planets constantly change.

The motion of the planets can be described as follows:

**Direct Motion:** Most of the time, planets move in what is known as direct or prograde motion. This means they move from west to east across the sky over time. As days and weeks pass, the planets gradually shift their positions eastward in relation to the stars.

**Retrograde Motion: **Occasionally, planets appear to move backward or westward relative to the background stars. This is known as retrograde motion. Retrograde motion occurs when the Earth, in its faster inner orbit, overtakes and passes by an outer planet. From our perspective on Earth, it appears as if the outer planet is moving backward for a period of time before resuming its direct motion.

The combination of the planets' own orbital speeds, Earth's orbital speed, and the varying distances between the planets and Earth leads to their changing positions in the sky. These movements can be observed and tracked by astronomers, and their positions can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy using mathematical models and astronomical calculations.

It's worth noting that the planets' positions can also be influenced by **gravitational interactions** between them. While these effects are relatively small, they can cause slight deviations from predicted positions over longer periods of time.

Overall, the positions of the planets change gradually from day to day and week to week due to their orbital motion around the Sun, resulting in the familiar dance of the** planets** in our night sky.

To know more about **planets:**

https://brainly.com/question/32542419

#SPJ4

Which one of the followings is not a great circle? The plane of equator Arctic circle The circle of illumination Ecliptic plane Prime meridian

### Answers

However, the **circle of illumination **is not a great circle. It represents the dividing line between the illuminated and dark portions of a celestial body, such as the Earth, at a given time. It is the circle that separates day and night on the Earth's surface.

A great circle is a circle on the surface of a sphere that has the same diameter as the **sphere.** It divides the sphere into two equal hemispheres.

The plane of the equator, the Arctic circle, the **ecliptic plane**, and the prime meridian are all examples of great circles.

The circle which separates day from night is called the circle of illumination.

The circle of illumination does not coincide with the axis because of the inclination of the axis towards **east**. The earth takes 24 hours (one day) to complete one rotation around its axis.

However, the circle of illumination is not a great circle. It represents the dividing line between the illuminated and dark portions of a celestial body, such as the Earth, at a given time. It is the circle that separates day and night on the Earth's surface, but it does not have the same diameter as the Earth and therefore does not qualify as a **great circle.**

To know more about** great circle:**

https://brainly.com/question/4504954

#SPJ4

A tie member in a bracing system consists of two angles 150 x 115 x 10mm (f, = 250) MPa with long legs connected to a gusset plate by 18 mm diameter rivets in such a way that each angle section is reduced in section by one rivet hole only. Determine the tensile strength of the member if:

(a) The angles are connected on the same side of the gusset plate, 12 mm thick and tack riveted.

(b) The angles are connected on the opposite side of the gusset plate, 12 mm thick and tack riveted

### Answers

The tensile strength of the tie member is approximately a)** 532.765 kN **when the angles are connected on the same side of the **gusset plate **and approximately b) **405.53 kN** when the **angles **are connected on the opposite side of the gusset plate.

To determine the **tensile strength** of the tie member in both scenarios, we need to consider the reduction in section due to the rivet holes and calculate the net effective area.

Given data:

**Angle size**: 150 x 115 x 10mm

Angle material yield strength: f_y = 250 MPa

Gusset plate thickness: 12 mm

Rivet diameter: 18 mm

(a) Angles connected on the **same side of the gusset plate**:

1. Calculate the **gross area** of one angle section:

Gross area = (Width of angle section - Rivet hole area) x Thickness of angle section

= (150 - 18) x 10

= 1320 [tex]mm^2[/tex]

2. Calculate the net effective area of one angle section:

Net area = Gross area - Rivet hole area

= Gross area - (Number of rivets x Rivet hole area)

= [tex]1320 - (1 * \pi * (18/2)^2)[/tex]

= 1320 - (1 x 254.47)

= 1065.53 [tex]mm^2[/tex]

3. Calculate the net effective **area **of both angle sections:

Total net area = 2 x Net area

= 2 x 1065.53

= 2131.06 [tex]mm^2[/tex]

4. Calculate the tensile strength of the member:

Tensile strength = Total net area x Yield strength of the angle material

= 2131.06 x 250

= 532,765 N (or 532.765 kN)

(b) Angles connected on the **opposite side of the gusset plate**:

The calculation steps for determining the tensile strength are the same as in scenario (a). The only difference is the number of rivets affecting the net area.

1. Calculate the gross area of one angle section:

**Gross area = (Width of angle section - Rivet hole area) x Thickness of angle section**

[tex]= (150 - 18) * 10\\ = 1320 mm^2[/tex]

2. Calculate the net effective area of one angle section:

Net area = Gross area - Rivet hole area

[tex]= Gross area - (Number\ of\ rivets\ x\ Rive\ hole\ area)\\ = 1320 - (2 x \pi * (18/2)^2)\\ = 1320 - (2 * 254.47)\\ = 811.06 mm^2[/tex]

3. Calculate the net effective area of both angle sections:

Total net area = 2 x Net area

= 2 x 811.06

= 1622.12 [tex]mm^2[/tex]

4. Calculate the tensile strength of the member:

Tensile strength = Total net area x Yield strength of the angle material

= 1622.12 x 250

= 405,530 N (or 405.53 kN)

Therefore, the tensile strength of the tie member is approximately **532.765 kN** when the angles are connected on the same side of the gusset plate and approximately **405.53 kN** when the angles are connected on the opposite side of the gusset plate.

Learn more about **tensile strength **at:

https://brainly.com/question/25748369

#SPJ4

true or false and correct

(a) In blanking operations, the original sheet metal will be used as the final product while the blank will be considered as scrap ( ).

(b) In hot forming, the operation is performed at a temperature below the melting point of the metal ( ).

(c) In deep-drawing operations, the diameter of the punch must be greater than the diameter of the die ( ).

(d) In cold forming operations, the material is subjected to strain hardening which limits the amount of forming that can be done ( ).

(e) In cold forming operations, a poor surface finish is obtained due to wor surface oxidation ( ).

### Answers

(a) The given statement "In **blanking operations**, the original sheet metal will be used as the final product while the blank will be considered as scrap ( )" is false.

(b) The given statement "In hot forming, the operation is performed at a temperature below the melting point of the metal ( )" is false.

(c) The given statement "In deep-drawing operations, the diameter of the punch must be greater than the diameter of the die ( )" is false.

(d) The given statement "In cold forming operations, the material is subjected to strain hardening which limits the amount of forming that can be done ( )" is false.

(e) The given statement "In cold forming operations, a poor surface finish is obtained due to wor surface oxidation ( )" is false.

(a) False. In blanking operations, the blank will be considered as scrap while the original sheet metal will be used as the final product. Blanking is a **metalworking **process in which a piece of sheet metal is removed from a larger piece of stock by a punch and die, thus forming a blank.

(b) False. In hot forming, the operation is performed at a temperature above the melting point of the metal. Hot forming involves the heating of a material to a temperature that is above the **recrystallization **temperature of the material.

(c) False. In **deep-drawing operations**, the diameter of the punch must be smaller than the diameter of the die. Deep drawing is a metalworking process in which a flat piece of sheet metal is formed into a three-dimensional part such as a cup or a box by drawing the material through a die.

(d) False. In cold forming operations, the material is subjected to strain hardening which improves the material's strength and ductility. Cold forming is a metalworking process in which a material is plastically deformed at room temperature.

(e) False. In cold forming operations, a good surface finish is obtained because there is no need for a cutting tool, and therefore, no burrs are formed. Cold forming produces a smooth surface finish that requires no additional processing.

In conclusion, the following statements are true/false: (a) False. (b) False. (c) False. (d) False. (e) False.

For more such questions on **blanking operations**, click on:

https://brainly.com/question/16929192

#SPJ8

9 Two wells are located at points A and B respectively. Point C is the middle point between A and B. When water is pumped out from Well A only, the drawdown at C is 7 in. if water is pumped out from well A whle water is poured in from well B at the same rate, what is the drawdown(ft) at point C?

### Answers

**Answer:**

**Explanation:**

When water is pumped out of well A, it causes a drop of 7 inches at point C; if water is pumped from well B into well A (at the same rate the water is pumped out of well A), then it will give a rise of 7 inches at well C. Therefore the net drawdown at well C is:

S = 7-7 = 0

A soil has a water content of 25%

and a degree of saturation of 82%.

Compute the sp.gr. of the soil if it has

a dry unit weight of 14.33 kN/m3.

a. 127.48 c. 182.48

b. 172.47 d. 128.47

### Answers

The specific **gravity** of the soil is approximately 2.371.

To compute the specific gravity (sp.gr.) of the soil, we can use the following formula:

**Sp.gr**. = (Dry unit weight of soil) / (Unit weight of water)

Given:

**Water** content = 25%

Degree of saturation = 82%

Dry unit weight = 14.33 kN/m³

First, we need to calculate the unit **weight** of water. The unit weight of water is approximately 9.81 kN/m³.

Next, we can calculate the unit weight of the soil:

Unit weight of soil = (1 - Water content) × (**Degree** of **saturation**) × (Unit weight of water)

Unit weight of soil = [tex](1-0.25)*0.82*9.81 kN/m^3[/tex]

Unit weight of soil = [tex]0.75*0.82*9.81kN/m^3[/tex]

Unit weight of **soil** ≈ [tex]6.042kN/m^3[/tex]

Finally, we can calculate the specific gravity:

Sp.gr. = (**Dry** unit weight of soil) / (Unit weight of water)

Sp.gr. = [tex]14.33kN/m^3/6.042kNm^3[/tex]

Sp.gr. ≈ 2.371

To know more about **saturation**:

https://brainly.com/question/29134787

**#SPJ4**

Jupiter has the strongest magnetic field and largest

magnetosphere of all the planets. What hazards does this pose to

spacecraft?

### Answers

Jupiter's strong magnetic field and** large magnetosphere** pose several hazards to spacecraft. To mitigate these hazards,** **spacecraft exploring Jupiter** **or its vicinity need to be equipped with shielding, radiation-hardened electronics, and robust communication systems to withstand the extreme conditions encountered in this environment.

Radiation, Jupiter's magnetosphere traps and accelerates charged particles, creating intense **radiation belts**. These radiation belts can damage spacecraft electronics and pose risks to the health of astronauts, causing increased radiation exposure.

Magnetic Interference, Jupiter's powerful magnetic field can interfere with spacecraft instruments and communication systems. It can induce electrical currents in the **spacecraft**, leading to data corruption or system malfunctions.

Navigation Challenges, The **magnetic field** of Jupiter can affect spacecraft navigation systems, causing inaccuracies in position and velocity calculations. This can make it challenging to navigate accurately around Jupiter or its moons.

Particle Impact, The trapped **charged particles** in Jupiter's magnetosphere can also collide with spacecraft, potentially causing damage to surfaces and sensitive equipment.

To know more about ** large magnetosphere, **here

brainly.com/question/32137773

#SPJ4

V 1st attempt did See Periodic Ta What is the wavelength of peak radiation, in meters, for a white dwarf with a temperature of 5.0×104 K?_____ m

### Answers

The **wavelength** of peak radiation for the **white dwarf **with a temperature of [tex]5.0*10^4 K[/tex] is approximately

[tex]5.796 * 10^{(-8)[/tex] meters, or 57.96 nanometers.

To determine the wavelength of** peak radiation** for a white dwarf with a temperature of [tex]5.0*10^4 K[/tex], we can use Wien's displacement law. According to the law, the wavelength of peak radiation (λmax) is inversely proportional to the temperature (T) of the object.

The formula for Wien's displacement law is:

λmax = b / T

where b is **Wien's displacement constant**, which is approximately equal to[tex]2.898 *10^{(-3)[/tex] m·K.

Plugging in the **values**:

λmax =[tex](2.898 * 10^{(-3)} m.K) / (5.0*10^4 K)[/tex]

λmax ≈[tex]5.796 * 10^{(-8)} m[/tex]

To know more about **white dwarf, **here

brainly.com/question/29597084

#SPJ4

What are the different methods used to estimate wind speed at a location?

### Answers

The choice of method depends on the specific application, **budget**, and level of accuracy required. In many cases, a combination of methods is used to obtain a comprehensive understanding of wind patterns at a particular location.

There are several methods used to estimate wind speed at a location. These methods vary in terms of their complexity, accuracy, and the equipment required. Here are some common methods:

**Anemometers**: Anemometers are devices specifically designed to measure wind speed. The most common type is the cup anemometer, which consists of three or more cups mounted on a horizontal axis. As the wind blows, the cups rotate, and the rotational speed is directly related to the wind speed. Anemometers can provide real-time wind speed measurements.

**Wind Vanes:** While wind vanes primarily indicate wind direction, some designs also incorporate anemometer-like features to estimate wind speed. The vane is mounted on a vertical axis, and the force exerted by the wind causes the vane to align with the wind direction. By measuring the torque or force on the vane, an estimate of wind speed can be derived.

**Remote Sensing Techniques:** Remote sensing methods use various technologies to estimate wind speed without direct contact with the atmosphere. Some commonly used remote sensing techniques include:

a)** Doppler Radar:** Doppler radar measures the frequency shift of radio waves reflected off particles in the air (such as raindrops or dust) to estimate the wind speed. By analyzing the Doppler shift, meteorologists can determine the wind speed at different altitudes.

b) **LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)**: LIDAR uses laser beams to measure wind speed by analyzing the backscattered light from aerosols or particles in the air. The Doppler effect is utilized to calculate wind speed based on the frequency shift of the reflected laser light.

c) **Sodar (Sound Detection and Ranging):** Sodar works on similar principles as LIDAR but uses sound waves instead of laser beams. Sodar devices emit sound waves that bounce off atmospheric turbulence, and the frequency shift of the reflected waves is used to estimate wind speed at different altitudes.

**Weather Stations:** Weather stations equipped with anemometers and other meteorological instruments can provide accurate wind speed measurements. These stations are often operated by meteorological agencies and provide real-time data.

**Weather Models:** Numerical weather prediction models use complex mathematical equations to simulate atmospheric conditions, including wind speed. These models incorporate various atmospheric data, such as temperature, pressure, and humidity, to estimate wind speed at different locations and altitudes. Weather models are continually refined to improve accuracy but are best used for forecasting rather than real-time **wind speed** estimation.

The choice of method depends on the specific application, budget, and level of accuracy required. In many cases, a combination of methods is used to obtain a comprehensive understanding of wind patterns at a particular location.

To know more about **wind speed:**

https://brainly.com/question/31757250

#SPJ4

Plato's Apology: Socrates cross-examines one of the prosecutors, a man by the name of Meletus. He then refutes the two charges being brought against him by Meletus. Which of the following statements is part of Socrates’s cross-examination and refutation of Meletus? Group of answer choices "Does any man believe in spiritual activities who does not believe in spirits?" "One should value the good opinions, and not the bad ones?" "Do you mean that the man who desires beautiful things desires good things?" "Is piety then, which is the care of the gods, also to benefit the gods and make them better?"

### Answers

**Socrates **engages in cross-examination and refutation of Meletus, one of the prosecutors. The statement made by him in this exchange is, "Does any man believe in **spiritual activities** who does not believe in spirits?"

**Socrates **poses this question to Meletus as part of his cross-examination and refutation of the **charges **brought against him. By asking whether someone can believe in spiritual activities without believing in spirits, Socrates challenges the inconsistency in Meletus' accusation.

**Meletus **accuses Socrates of not believing in the gods recognized by the city, but Socrates argues that if he believes in spiritual activities, it implies a **belief **in spirits. This line of questioning exposes the contradiction in Meletus' argument and casts doubt on the validity of the charges.

Socrates' method of questioning and refuting Meletus' accusations demonstrates his skill in exposing logical flaws and inconsistencies in his opponent's arguments.

Learn more about **charges **here:

https://brainly.com/question/14713274

#SPJ11

A student claps his hands in an enclosed stairwell. He hears the echo 0.3s later.

He used the speed of sound to calculate the height of the stairwell.

Give two reasons why the height of the stairwell might not be accurate.

### Answers

There are several reasons why the height of the stairwell calculated based on the speed of sound might not be accurate. Here are two possible reasons:

1. Inaccurate measurement of the time delay: The student may not have accurately measured the time delay between clapping their hands and hearing the echo. Any error in measuring this time delay will result in an incorrect calculation of the height. Factors such as human error, imprecise timing methods, or difficulty in discerning the exact moment the echo reaches the student's ears can contribute to inaccuracies in the time measurement.

2. Assumptions about the speed of sound: The calculation relies on the assumption that the speed of sound is constant and known. However, the speed of sound can vary depending on the temperature, humidity, and other atmospheric conditions. If the student used an inaccurate or outdated value for the speed of sound or failed to account for changes in environmental conditions within the stairwell, the calculated height will be affected.

Other potential reasons for inaccuracy could include echoes or reverberations that are not directly related to the height of the stairwell, such as sound reflections from nearby objects or irregularities in the stairwell's structure that affect the propagation of sound waves. Additionally, if the stairwell is not perfectly enclosed, sound may escape or enter from other openings, affecting the accuracy of the measurement.

[tex]\huge{\mathfrak{\colorbox{black}{\textcolor{lime}{I\:hope\:this\:helps\:!\:\:}}}}[/tex]

♥️ [tex]\large{\underline{\textcolor{red}{\mathcal{SUMIT\:\:ROY\:\:(:\:\:}}}}[/tex]

The shear wall in a typical floor of a multi storey framed building shown in Fig. the building consists of 10 floors. Height of each floor is 3.0m, the wind load uniformly distributed along all building height and its value equal to 1.20 kN/m2. Use fc' = 25MPa, fy = 414 MPa for all types of reinforcement. Each shear wall carry 12 kN/ storey as a vertical load (live load = 5 KN/storey and dead load = 7 kN/storey) in addition to its own weight. Check the adequacy of the section of the shear with provided steel for:

1- Maximum bending moment at third floor.

2- Maximum shear force at third floor.

### Answers

Maximum **Bending Moment **at Third Floor is 2601 kNm,

Maximum Shear Force at Third Floor is 19.80 kN.

1.Maximum Bending Moment at Third Floor:

The maximum bending moment occurs at the bottom of the shear wall where it is subjected to the maximum load. The bending moment can be calculated using the following formula:

M = W[tex]I^{2}[/tex] / 8

Where:

M = Bending Moment

W = Total Load on the shear wall (including self-weight, vertical loads, and wind load)

I= Height of the shear wall

the total **load** on the shear wall at the third floor:

Vertical Load = Dead Load + Live Load

Vertical Load = 7 kN/storey + 5 kN/storey = 12 kN/storey

Total Load on the Shear Wall = Vertical Load + Wind Load

Total Load on the Shear Wall = 12 kN/storey + (1.20 kN/[tex]m^{2}[/tex] * 3 m) = 12 kN/storey + 3.60 kN/storey = 15.60 kN/storey

**Height** of the Shear Wall at the third floor = 3.0 m * 3 = 9.0 m

Plugging the values into the formula:

M = [tex](15.60 kN/storey * 9.0 m)^{2}[/tex] / 8

M = 15.60 kN/storey * 9.0 m * 15.60 kN/storey * 9.0 m / 8

M = 2601 kNm

2. Maximum Shear Force at Third Floor:

The maximum **shear force** occurs at the top of the shear wall due to the wind load. The shear force can be calculated using the following formula:

V = Wl / 2

Where:

V = Shear Force

W = Wind Load

l = Height of the shear wall

Plugging the values into the formula:

V = (1.20 kN/[tex]m^{2}[/tex] * 3.0 m * 9.0 m) / 2

V = 19.80 kN

learn more about **bending moment:**

https://brainly.com/question/30242055

#SPJ4

i) what is one theoretical reason why liberals support free trade? ii) what is one realist critique of free trade? and iii) what is one Marxist critique of free trade? When answering this question, briefly describe the liberal theory you outline and explain how your realist and Marxist critiques flow out of those respective worldviews. (Fact)

### Answers

One theoretical reason why **liberals **support free **trade **is based on the principle of comparative advantage, which suggests that countries can benefit from specializing in the production of goods they are most efficient at producing.

**Liberals** support free trade based on the **theory of comparative advantage**. According to this theory, countries should specialize in producing goods that they can produce more efficiently or at a lower opportunity cost than other countries. By engaging in free trade, countries can exchange goods and services, leading to increased efficiency and overall economic growth. Liberals argue that free trade fosters cooperation enhances** global economic interdependence **and promotes peace among nations.

On the other hand, realists offer a critique of free trade from a national security perspective. **Realists **emphasize the importance of protecting domestic industries, as reliance on **foreign trade **can leave a country vulnerable to economic disruptions or dependency on other nations. They argue that the loss of domestic industries through free trade may weaken a country's economic self-sufficiency and potentially compromise its national security.

**Marxists **provide a different critique of free trade, focusing on its perpetuation of economic inequality and exploitation. They argue that free trade primarily benefits powerful nations and multinational corporations, enabling them to exploit cheaper labor and **resources **in developing countries. Marxists contend that free trade exacerbates wealth disparities, reinforces neocolonial relationships, and perpetuates a system that benefits the wealthy elite at the expense of the working class.

Learn more about **theory of comparative advantage **here:

https://brainly.com/question/31257506

#SPJ11

Describe the development of our current model of the atom from the ancient Greeks till the 20 th century. For the toolbar, press \( \mathrm{ALT}+\mathrm{F} 10 \) (PC) or \( \mathrm{ALT}+\mathrm{FN}+\m

### Answers

The development of our current model of the atom evolved over centuries, starting with the ancient Greeks' conceptualization of the **atom **as an indivisible particle.

Around the fifth century BCE, the Greeks became the first people to put forth the idea of the atom. Democritus and other philosophers proposed the idea that matter is made up of tiny, **indivisible **pieces called atoms, but there was no experimental support for this theory at the time. Although it survived for centuries, this idea did not significantly change until the 19th century.

Scientific developments in the 19th century led to a deeper comprehension of atoms. With notable contributions from Michael Faraday's work on electromagnetic induction and Benjamin Franklin's electricity tests, scientists discovered the presence of **electrical charges**.

Groundbreaking investigations that transformed our understanding of the atom took place in the early 20th century. The electron, a negatively charged particle inside the atom, was discovered in 1897 as a result of J.J. Thomson's** cathode ray tube** studies. Atoms are shown to have a small, dense, positively charged nucleus that is around by negatively charged electrons in a large empty region by Ernest Rutherford's gold foil experiment in 1911.

The **Rutherford model**, sometimes known as the planetary model, was created in response to the discovery of the nucleus. This model, however, encountered problems since it was unable to explain the stability of atoms and the behavior of electrons. Researchers like Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrödinger made significant contributions to the development of quantum mechanics in the 1920s and 1930s.

The wave-particle duality and **quantum **mechanical concepts are both included in the current model of the atom, also referred to as the quantum mechanical model. In orbitals, which are areas of probability where electrons are most likely to be located, it says that electrons exist. Around the nucleus, these orbitals are arranged into energy levels or shells. The behavior of subatomic particles like protons and neutrons, which make up the nucleus, is also taken into consideration by the model.

To know more about **atom **here https://brainly.com/question/17545314

#SPJ4

What is the primary difference between the atmosphere of Saturn and Jupiter?

### Answers

The compositions of the **atmospheres** of Saturn and Jupiter are what distinguishes them most from one another.

Both planets' atmospheres are mainly composed of **hydrogen** and helium, although Saturn's is heavier than Jupiter's and contains more methane, ammonia, and water vapor. Unique color and atmospheric characteristics result from this** compositional variation**. Because ammonia is present in greater quantities on Jupiter than on Saturn, Jupiter's atmosphere has a more vivid, reddish-brown look. The renowned **Great Red Spot** is a significant feature, and Jupiter's cloud bands are even more distinct and prominent. Contrarily, **Saturn's cloud bands** are less defined, and its weather is often milder.

To know more about **Great Red Spot, **here

brainly.com/question/29751811

#SPJ4

Advances in architectural achievements thrived during the Aegean and Greek eras, creating visual inspirations still used today. Investigate the progress of architecture and describe the development of architecture in this time period.

Paragraph 1: Aegean Architecture (Mycenean and/or Minoan).

Paragraph 2: Greek Architecture (Archaic, Classical, and/or Hellenistic)

### Answers

**Aegean architecture** includes Mycenaean and Minoan styles. Both had architecture that influenced later developments. The Minoans made giant houses with lots of rooms and beautiful paintings on the walls. They also had pretty gardens. The Myceneans built strong castles and big palaces using big stones, just like the Lion Gate in Mycenae.

Greek **architecture **greatly contributed to the field, shaping principles and styles still impacting modern designs.

What is the architectural achievements

The **Minoan **civilization on Crete had advanced architecture in the Bronze Age. The Minoans built grand palace complexes, like Knossos, with elaborate layouts and impressive courtyards.

Greek **architecture **has three main periods: Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic. During the Archaic period, Greeks developed temples as the dominant architectural form. Temples used post-and-lintel construction with columns supporting lintels. Examples: Temple of Hera (Olympia) & Temple of Artemis (Corfu). During a long time ago, the Minoans and Myceneans improved the way they built buildings and structures.

A long time ago, there were two types of building styles called the Doric and Ionic. The Doric style had strong and plain columns, while the Ionic style had thin columns with fancy designs. The buildings from the past in **Greece **and Aegean regions still impact the creation of new buildings today. They encourage ideas of making things fit well together and blending in with nature.

Learn more about **Aegean **from

https://brainly.com/question/28604645

#SPJ4

Q2 (a) A radar, with coordinates (0,0), has coverage with length of d. While the second radar, with identical coverage, is situated on the east side of the first one. Using signal intersection, both radars detect an object coming closer to the southern direction in the first quadrant. Note that radars swap the covered area into circles.

i) Identify position of the object in terms of distance and angle. Complete your answer with a sketch.

ii) Analyze and calculate the overlapping area from the radar signals intersection at the first quadrant.

### Answers

Considering the coordinates of the radars as well as the direction of the object in order to determine the object's position in terms of distance and angle. Sincе thе **radars **arе situatеd at (0,0) and thе sеcond radar is on thе еast sidе of thе first onе, wе can assumе that thе first radar is locatеd on thе x-pivot and thе sеcond radar is locatеd on thе positivе y-hub.

Lеt's say thе objеct is dеtеctеd at coordinatеs (x, y). The objесt's y-**coordinativity **will be negative and its x-coordinativity positive as it approaches the southern direction in the first quadrant.

We can use the distancе formula to determine the object's diameter from its origin (0, 0):

**Distancée **= (x + y) 2 The angle can be calculated with trigonometry. The angle can be summarized as:

= arctan(y/x) ii) We must consider the circles of overlap for each radar in order to calculate the overlap from the radar signal intersection in the first quadrant.

Due to the fact that both radars have distinctive overlap and divide the covered area into circles, the overlapped area will be the intersection of these circles.

Thе **ovеrlapping **arеa can bе calculatеd by finding thе arеa of thе intеrsеction of two circlеs. The formula for the area of the intersection of two circles can be complex and depends on the specific radii and dimensions that exist between the circles' centers.

To know more about **radars**, visit:

brainly.com/question/31783853

#SPJ4

What do life tables and survivorship curves show us? Why would we want to make a survivorship curve or life table for an organism? Explain.

Governments around the world keep records of human birth and death rates not just for the overall population of a country but also for specific groups within it, broken down by age and sex. Often, this data is arranged in summary tables called life tables. Enterprising Insurance companies make good use of these life tables, taking the probability of death at a given age and using it to calculate insurance rates that, statistically, guarantee a tidy profit.

Ecologists often collect similar information for the species they study, but they don't do it to maximize profits! They do it to gain knowledge and, often, to help protect species. Take, for example, ecologists concerned about the endangered red panda. They might follow a group of red pandas from birth to death. Each year, they would record how many pandas had survived and how many cubs had been born. From this data, they could better understand the life history, or typical survival and reproduction pattern, of their red panda group.

What's the use of a life history? In some cases, ecologists are just plain curious about how organisms live, reproduce, and die. But there is also a practical reason to collect life history data. By combining birth and death rates with a "snapshot" of the current population-how many old and young organisms there are and whether they are male or female-ecologists can predict how a population is likely to grow or shrink in the future. This is particularly important in the case of an endangered species, like the red pandas in our example.

### Answers

**Life tables** summarize the probabilities of survival and mortality for individuals of different age groups within a population.

By studying the life history of endangered species, ecologists can identify critical life stages and factors influencing population declinesLife Tables show how long different age groups are likely to live, and how many people survive at each age.

By examining life tables, ecologists can:

Find out how long people are expected to live in a group.Find out how likely people of different ages are to die and how long they are expected to live.

**Survivorship curves **show how many individuals in a population survive over a period of time.

They make a graph that shows how many people are still alive at each age. Survivorship curves help us understand different things about living organisms.

**Ecologists **who study animals that are in danger of becoming extinct, like red pandas, use life tables and survivorship curves to learn many things.

They give really important information about how many animals die and survive. This helps make plans to protect the species.They help find important times in an animal's life when we need to help them, like keeping their homes safe or helping them have babies.

What is survivorship?

Life tables assist us in **comprehending **the variations in the size of a population, death rates that correspond to specific age groups, and the complete biography of a species.

**Survivorship **curves visually illustrate the proportion of individuals who survive at each age throughout their lives. They provide a depiction of the typical mortality trends present in a group of individuals and aid in recognizing unique approaches to survival.

Survivorship curves show how many individuals in a **population **survive over a period of time. They make a graph that shows how many people are still alive at each age. Survivorship curves show how many animals or people will survive or die in a population over time.

Learn more about **survivorship **from

https://brainly.com/question/27978259

#SPJ4